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Author:

V.J. Dowson, Newcastle Preparatory School,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. (June 1999) - Yr 2 - 1999

Field of Study:

Time of day effects in school children’s immediate and delayed recall of meaningful material.

Design:

R O X O am. O
R O X O pm. O

Groups were randomly assigned using ability matched pairs. Pupils were pretested using the Neale Analysis ‘standard reading test of comprehension’.

IV:

Pupils were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the a.m. or the p.m group. Both groups were played the same taped story; the morning group at 09:00h, the afternoon group at 15:00h. Both groups were given a questionnaire to answer containing 20 questions. All the instructions and questions were recorded onto magnetic tape to ensure that both groups received a consistent time for each question, uniform conditions and to enable the less confident readers to answer all the questions as this was not a test of reading ability but of comprehension. The two groups were given the same questionnaire one week later in the same place and at the same time as before.

DV:

Student scores from the two questionnaires from both groups were analysed statistically.

Participants:

34 pupils from two parallel form groups of a Preparatory School. There were 13 female and 21 male pupils. They had an age range of 6 years 11 months to 7 years 8 months.

Results:

 

Immediate Test

Delayed Test

 

n

x

SD

n

x

SD

Morning

16

14.19

4.16

16

13.44

3.84

Afternoon

18

14.78

3.50

18

14.00

3.15

Effect Size

   

- 0.15

   

- 0.15

A matched pairs t-test showed there was no statistically significant difference of immediate recall between the 09:00h and the 15:00h group (t=0.67, d.f.=32, p= 0.51). The delayed recall of the afternoon group was also not statistically significantly different from that of the morning group (t=0.40, d.f.=32, p=0.69).

Keywords:

Time of Day, immediate, delayed, recall, information.

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