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Author:

V.J. Dowson, Newcastle Preparatory School,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. (June 2000) - Yr 6 - 2000

Field of Study:

Time of day effects in school children’s immediate and delayed recall of meaningful material.

Design:

R O X O am. O
R O X O pm. O

Groups were randomly assigned using ability matched pairs. Pupils were pretested using the N.F.E.R. ‘standard test of comprehension’.

IV:

Pupils were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the a.m. or the p.m group. Both groups were played the same taped story; the morning group at 09:00h, the afternoon group at 15:00h. Both groups were given a questionnaire to answer containing 30 questions. All the instructions and questions were recorded onto magnetic tape to ensure that both groups received a consistent time for each question, uniform conditions and to enable the less confident readers to answer all the questions as this was not a test of reading ability but of comprehension. The two groups were given the same questionnaire one week later in the same place and at the same time as before.

DV:

Student scores from the two questionnaires from both groups were analysed statistically. Participants: 32 pupils from two parallel form groups of a Preparatory School. There were 11 female and 21 male pupils. They had an age range of 10 years 7 months to 11 years 8 months.

Results:

 

Immediate Test

Delayed Test

 

n

x

SD

n

x

SD

Morning

17

23.2

2.36

17

21.53

5.88

Afternoon

15

23.5

4.15

15

20.24

9.86

Effect Size

   

- 0.09

   

0.16

A matched pairs t-test showed there was no statistically significant difference of immediate recall between the 09:00h and the 15:00h group (t=0.75, d.f.=30, p= 0.46). The delayed recall of the afternoon group was also not statistically significantly different from that of the morning group (t=0.18, d.f.=28, p=0.86).

Keywords:

Time of Day, immediate, delayed, recall, information.

Research

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